It is a feature that allows us to introduce decision-making when executing formulas and functions. Functions are used to;
Check if a condition is true or false
Combine multiple conditions together
What is a condition and why does it matter?
A condition is an expression that either evaluates to true or false. The expression could be a function that determines if the value entered in a cell is of numeric or text data type, if a value is greater than, equal to or less than a specified value, etc.
The IF function can perform a logical test and return one value for a TRUE result, and another for a FALSE result. For example, to "pass" scores above 70: =IF(A1>70,"Pass","Fail"). More than one condition can be tested by nesting IF functions. The IF function can be combined with logical functions like AND and OR.
=IF(logical_test, [value_if_true], [value_if_false])
Returns a value you specify if a formula evaluates to an error; otherwise, returns the result of the formula. Use the IFERROR function to trap and handle errors in a formula.
The AND function is a logical function used to require more than one condition at the same time. AND returns either TRUE or FALSE. To test if a number in A1 is greater than zero and less than 10, use =AND(A1>0,A1<10). The AND function can be used as the logical test inside the IF function to avoid extra nested IFs, and can be combined with the OR function.
=AND(logical1, [logical2], ...)
The OR function is a logical function to test multiple conditions at the same time. OR returns either TRUE or FALSE. For example, to test A1 for either "x" or "y", use =OR(A1="x",A1="y"). The OR function can be used as the logical test inside the IF function to avoid extra nested IFs, and can be combined with the AND function.
=OR(logical1, [logical2], ...)